1 the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience; "he listened to an address on minor Roman poets" [syn: address]
2 (language) communication by word of mouth; "his speech was garbled"; "he uttered harsh language"; "he recorded the spoken language of the streets" [syn: speech communication, spoken communication, spoken language, language, voice communication, oral communication]
3 something spoken; "he could hear them uttering merry speeches"
4 the exchange of spoken words; "they were perfectly comfortable together without speech"
5 your characteristic style or manner of expressing yourself orally; "his manner of speaking was quite abrupt"; "her speech was barren of southernisms"; "I detected a slight accent in his speech" [syn: manner of speaking, delivery]
6 a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to" [syn: lecture, talking to]
8 the mental faculty or power of vocal communication; "language sets homo sapiens apart from all other animals" [syn: language]
Etymologyspræc (later: spæc)
- /ˈspiːtʃ/, /"spi:tS/
- Rhymes: -iːtʃ
an oration, session of speaking
- Czech: řeč
- Dutch: toespraak, speech
- Finnish: puhe
- French: discours
- German: Rede, Ansprache
- Greek: λόγος, ομιλία
- Hungarian: beszéd
- Icelandic: ræða, ávarp, tala
- Italian: discorso
- Japanese: 演説 (えんぜつ, enzetsu)
- Lithuanian: prakalba , pranešimas , kalba
- Portuguese: discurso
- Russian: речь (reč’) , спич (spič)
- Slovene: govor
- Spanish: discurso
- Swedish: tal
- Telugu: ఉపన్యాసం (upanyaasam)
Speech refers to the processes associated with the production and perception of sounds used in spoken language. A number of academic disciplines study speech and speech sounds, including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, and computer science.
Speech productionIn linguistics (articulatory phonetics), manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants.
Speech perceptionSpeech perception refers to the processes by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language. The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and phonology in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. Speech research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, as well as improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners.
Problems involving speechseealso Speech pathology
There are several biological and psychological factors that can affect speech. Among these are:
- Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections, vocal fold nodules and cancers of the lungs and throat.
- Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias, dysarthria, dystonia and speech processing disorders, where impaired motor planning, nerve transmission, phonological processing or perception of the message (as opposed to the actual sound) leads to poor speech production.
- Hearing problems, such as otitis media effusion can lead to phonological problems.
- Articulatory problems, such as stuttering, lisping, cleft palate, ataxia, or nerve damage leading to problems in articulation. Tourette syndrome and tics can also affect speech.
- In addition to aphasias, anomia and certain types of dyslexia can impede the quality of auditory perception, and therefore, expression. Hearing impairments and deafness can be considered to fall into this category.
speech in Estonian: Kõne
speech in English: Speech
speech in Spanish: Habla
speech in Occitan (post 1500): Paraula
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